Integrating 21st Century Skills into teaching English: Investigating its effect on listening and speaking skills

Hamid Ashraf*, Fatemeh Ahmadi**, Mansooreh Hosseinnia***
* Assistant Professor, Department of English, Torbat-e-Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran.
**-*** Ph.D Scholar, Department of English, Torbat-e-Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran.
Periodicity:October - December'2017


The present study intended to integrate some 21 century skills teaching into English classroom and investigate their effect on listening and reading comprehension skills. In so doing, the study used a quantitative, experimental design with 55 participants, 25 in the control group, and 30 in the experimental group who were students of second high school grade in Birjand with convenience sampling. Final National listening and speaking examination was used as the pretest and posttest. The results of a pretest showed that, the students of the two groups were homogenous with regard to their proficiency level. Then, they were divided into experimental group who practiced speaking and listening by means of st 21 century skills, and control group who practiced the same speaking and listening activities with traditional education. st After the twelfth session, the participants took a posttest. And, the results of the post-test showed that learning 21 century skills have a positive effect on speaking and listening skills.


21 Century Skills, Speaking, Listening, Teaching, EFL

How to Cite this Article?

Ashraf, H., Ahmadi, F., and Hosseinnia, M. (2017). Integrating 21st Century Skills into teaching English: Investigating its effect on listening and speaking skills. i-manager’s Journal on English Language Teaching, 7(4), 35-43.


[1]. Andrade, M. S. (2016). Curricular elements for learner success-21 century skills. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(8),143-149.
[2]. Arabshahi, M., Ashraf, H., & Motallebzadeh, K. H. (2015). On the relationship between the Iranian intermediate EFL learners' 21 century skills awareness and their level of anxiety in EFL classes (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, Islamic Azad University of Torbat-e Heydarieh, Iran).
[3]. Ashraf, H., Motallebzadeh, K. H., & Arabshahi, M. (2016). On the design, validation and reliability of the 21 century skills questionnaire in an EFL context. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 6(3), 1-19.
[4]. Aytan, T. (2016). The effect of a listening education course on the listening behaviors of prospective Turkish teachers. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(2), 254-262.
[5]. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[6]. Bruffee, K. A. (1984). Collaborative learning: higher education. Interdependence and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
[7]. Erstad, O. (2008). Trajectories of remixing- digital literacies, media production and schooling, In C. Lankshear & M. Khobel (Eds.). Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices (pp. 177-202). New York: Peter Lang.
[8]. Farhady, H. & Motallebzadeh, K. H. (2014). The effects of 21 century skills awareness on reading comprehension: A quantitative and qualitative study in an EFL context. (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Islamic Azad University of Torbat-e Heydarieh, Iran).
[9]. Farisi, M. I. (2016). Developing the 21 -century social studies skills through technology integration. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 17(1),16-30.
[10]. Gallup. Inc. (2013). 21 century skills and the workplace (pp. 1-19). Retrieved from com/services/176699/21st-century-skills-workplace.aspx
[11]. Gokhale, A. A. (2005). Collaborative learning enhances critical thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7(1), 22-30.
[12]. Lino, A., Yabuta, Y., & Nakamura, Y. (2016). Effects of task-based videoconferencing on speaking performance and overall proficiency. In S. Papadima-Sophocleous, L. Bradley & S. Thouësny (Eds), CALL Communities and Culture – short papers from EUROCALL 2016 (pp. 196-200). Retrieved from https://doi. org/10.14705/rpnet. 2016.eurocall2016.561
[13]. Jacobson-Lundeberg, V. (2016). Pedagogical implication of 21 century skills. Educational Leadership and Administration: Teaching and Program Development, 27, 82-100
[14]. Jannejad, M., Shokouhi, H., & Haghighi, S. B. (2012). The Effects of Controlled Language Processing on Listening Comprehension and Recall. English Language Teaching, 5, (9), 155-165.
[15]. Kewley, L. (1988). Peer collaboration versus teacherdirected instruction: How two methodologies engage students in the learning process? Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 13(1), 27-32.
[16]. Kivunja, C. (2014a). Do you want your students to be job-ready with 21 century skills? Change pedagogies: A paradigm shift From Vygotskyian social constructivism to critical thinking, problem solving and Siemens' digital connectivism. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(3), 81–91. Retrieved from http://dx.doi. org/10.5430/ijhe. v3n3p81
[17]. Kivunja, C. (2014b). Innovative pedagogies in higher education to become effective teachers of 21 century skills: Unpacking the learning and innovations skills domain of the new learning paradigm. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(4), 37–48. Retrieved from http://dx.doi. org/10.5430/ijhe.v3n4p37
[18]. Kivunja, C. H. (2014c). Teaching students to learn and to work well with 21 century skills: Unpacking the career and life skills domain of the new learning paradigm. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(1), 1-11.
[19]. Lessig, L. (2008). Making Art and Commerce thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: The Penguin Press.
[20]. Motallebzadeh, K. H. & Kafi, Z. (2015). Place-based education: Does it improve 21 century skills? International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 4(1), 89- 94.
[21]. Nissim, Y., Weissblueth, E., Scott-Webber, L., & Amar, S. H. (2016). The effect of a stimulating learning environment on pre-service teachers' motivation and 21 century skills. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(3), 29-39.
[22]. Nunan, D. (1992). Collaborative Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
[23]. Partnership for 21 Century Learning. (2016). Retrieved on April 6, 2017, from
[24]. Pearson (2013). Empowering 21 Century Learners with Results that Matter. Pearson Education, Inc.
[25]. Pearson (2015). English Learners in 21 -century classrooms book. In how to teach in 21 century classrooms. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from ptgmedia. ter/0132685159.pdf
[26]. Pishghadam, R. (2008). Afzayeshe tafakore enteghedi az tarighe mobahesye adabi. Journal of Literature, 48, 153-167.
[27]. Rich, E. (2010). How Do You Define 21 -Century Learning? In Education Week, 4(1), 32-35. Retrieved from h04.html
[28]. Sharan, S. (1980). Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes, and ethnic relations, Review of Educational Research, 50, 241-258.
[29]. Suto, I. (2013). 21 century skills: Ancient, ubiquitous, enigmatic? Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment Publication.
[30]. Tekin, I. & Parmaksiz, R. S. (2016). Impact of video clips on the development of the listening skills in English classes: A case study of Turkish students. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(9), 200-208.
[31]. Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21 Century Skills: Learning for Life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[32]. Quieng, M. C., Lim, P. P., & Lucas, M. R. (2015). 21 Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 11(1), 72-81.
[33]. Wilson-Ahlstrom, A., Yohalem, N., DuBois, D., & Ji, P. (2011). From soft skills to hard data: Measuring youth program outcomes. Washington, DC: The Forum for Youth Investment.

Purchase Instant Access

Single Article

North Americas,UK,
Middle East,Europe
India Rest of world
Pdf 35 35 200 20
Online 35 35 200 15
Pdf & Online 35 35 400 25

If you have access to this article please login to view the article or kindly login to purchase the article
Options for accessing this content:
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.