Abstract

The aim of this study is fabrication of new design and stress analysis of Ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) on gait parameters of foot drop patients. In the initial phase, patients by age 3-5 years, who are suffering from cerebral palsy and foot drop disease are selected. An AFO is orthosis that is specifically designed to modify the functioning of the ankle and/or the foot. AFOs are produced in various forms composed of different materials, and prescribed with a wide variety of aims. In market, AFOs in polypropylene & polyethylene materials are available which are used by children. The present AFO design is used by patients who are facing excessive heating and sweating problem. After discussing with Patients and Orthotist (who prescribed AFO to patients), the authors have tried to overcome the problem with the new design of AFOs & done the Finite Element Modelling and stress analysis. The result shows that this new design is very close to the actual product.

Keywords
Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), Additive Manufacturing, Drop Foot, Polypropylene, Polyethylene.
How to Cite this Article?
Banga, H. K., Belokar, R. M., Kalra, P., and Madan, R. (2017). Fabrication and Stress Analysis of Kid's Ankle Foot Orthosis with Additive Manufacturing. i-manager’s Journal on Mechanical Engineering, 7(1), 1-7.
References
[1].Abboud, R.J., (2002). “Relevant Foot Biomechanics”. Current Orthopaedics, Vol.16, pp.65-179.
[2]. Ashby, M., and Johnson K. Materials (2006). Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
[3]. Alexander, M.A., Xing, S.Y., and Bhagia, S.M. (2011). Lower Limb Orthotics [Online]. WebMD LLC. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/314838- overview#aw2aab6b5
[4]. American Orthotic and Prosthetic Association Inc., (2008). Evidence Note - The Use of Ankle-Foot Orthoses in the Management of Stroke, pp.60–68.
[5]. Branko Brackx, Michaël Van Damme, Arnout Matthys, Bram Vanderborght and Dirk Lefeber, (2012). “Passive Ankle-Foot Prosthesis Prototype With Extended Push-Off”. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol.5 No.3, pp.125–132.
[6]. Bradford C. Bennett, Shawn D. Russell, and Mark F. Abel, (2012). “The Effects of Ankle-foot orthoses on Energy Recovery and Work During Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy”. Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon), Vol.27, No.3, pp.287–291.
[7]. Bregman, D.J.J., Rozumalski, A., Koops, D., De Groot, V., Schwartz, M., and Harlaar, J. (2009). “A New Method for Evaluating Ankle-foot orthosis Characteristics: BRUCE”. Gait Posture, Vol.30, pp. 144-149.
[8]. Brehm, M.-A., Harlaar, J., and Schwartz, M. (2008). “Effect of Ankle-foot orthoses on Walking Efficiency and Gaitin Children with Cerebral Palsy ”. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.40, pp.529-534.
[9]. Chen, C.-L., Yeung, K.-T., Wang, C.-H., Chu, H.-T., and Yeh, C.-Y. (1999). “Anterior Ankle-Foot Orthosis Effects on Postural Stability in Hemiplegic Patients”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol.80, pp.1587- 1592.
[10]. F.J. Munguia, K.W. Dalgarno, J. Pallari, (2009). “Advanced Orthotics Via Additive Manufacturing: From th Low-Cost To High-End Design”. 19 Congress of the European Society of Biomechanics, Vol.9, No.3, pp.252–260, Patras, Greece.
[11]. Jamshidi, N., Rostami, M., Najarian, S., Menhaj, M. B., Saadatnia, M., and Firooz, S., (2009). “Modelling of Human Walking to Optimise The Function of Ankle-foot orthosis in Guillan-Barré Patients with Drop Foot”. Singapore Medical Journal, Vol.50, No.4, pp.412-417.
[12]. Nowak MD et al. (2000). “Design enhancement of a solid Ankle-foot orthosis: Real-time contact pressures evaluation”. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol.37, pp.273-281.
[13]. Paolo Cappa, Giuseppe Di Rosa, and Fabrizio Patanè (2004). “Dynamic Measurement of 3-D Stiffness of Ankle-foot orthoses”. Conference: Sem X International Congress & Exposition on Experimental & Applied Mechanics, Vol.4, No.2, pp.42–50.
[14]. Slavyana Milusheva, Dimitar Tochev, Liliya Stefanova, and Yuli Toshev, (2011). “Virtual Models and Prototype Of th Individual Ankle-foot orthosis". XX Congress - 29 Annual Meeting Cleveland, Ohio, Vol.140, No.1, pp.102–110.
[15]. Serdar Kesikburun, Ferdi Yavuz, Ümüt Güzelküçük, Evren Yasar, and Birol Balaban, (2017). “Effect of Ankle-foot orthosis on gait parameters and functional ambulation in patients with stroke”. Turk. J. Phys. Med. Rehab., Vol.63, No.10, pp.1-8.
[16]. Esquenazi A, Ofluoglu D, Hirai B, and Kim S, (2009). “The effect of an Ankle-foot orthosis on temporal spatial parameters and asymmetry of gait in hemiparetic patients”. PM & R, The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, Vol.1, No.11, pp.1014-1018.
[17]. Franceschini M, Massucci M, Ferrari L, Agosti M,and Paroli C, (2003). “Effects of an Ankle-foot orthosis on spatiotemporal parameters and energy cost of hemiparetic gait”. Clin. Rehabil., Vol.17, No.4, pp.368-72.
Username / Email
Password
Don't have an account?  Sign Up
  • If you would like institutional access to this content, please recommend the title to your librarian.
    Library Recommendation Form
  • If you already have i-manager's user account: Login above and proceed to purchase the article.
  • New Users: Please register, then proceed to purchase the article.

Purchase Instant Access

PDF
10
USD

250
INR

HTML
10
USD

250
INR


We strive to bring you the best. Your feedback is of great value to us. Feel free to post your comments and suggestions.